Nouns and adjectives that modify them must agree with each other in everything. I have pointed out in previous posts that they must agree with each other in gender, number and definiteness. They must also agree with each other in case. There are 3 cases for nouns and adjectives to mark their functions as subject, object or their position after a preposition or as part of idafa.
The nominative case (حالة الرفع)
The nominative case applies to nouns that function as subjects in verbal sentences, and also to both subjects an predicates in nominal sentences, and all adjectives the modify them. In the following sentences, the nominative (مرفوع) nouns and adjectives are underlined:
يخرج الطالب مع أصدقائه كل يوم.
“The student goes out with his friends every day.”
“The girl is busy.”
المدرّس الجديد مصري.
“The new teacher is Egyptian.”
Student: subject of the verb.
Girl: subject of a nominal sentence.
Busy: predicate of a nominal sentence.
Teacher: subject of a nominal sentence.
New: Adjective of a nominative noun
Egyptian: predicate of a nominal sentence.
The Accusative case (حالة النصب)
The accusative case applies to nouns that function as objects in verbal sentences, and all adjectives the modify them. In the following sentences, the accusative (منصوب) nouns and adjectives are underlined:
قابلنا الطالب الجديد.
“We met the new student.”
أكل الولد تفاحة صغيرة وأكلت أخته برتقالة كبيرة.
“The by ate a small apple, and his sister ate a big orange.”
“I saw the accident.”
Student, apple, orange, accident: objects
New, small, big: adjectives of accusative nouns
The Genitive case (حالة الجر)
The genitive case applies to nouns that occur after a preposition, and also to nouns that occur as second nouns in idafa constructions, and all adjectives the modify them. In the following sentences, the nominative (مجرور) nouns and adjectives are underlined:
نحن من المغرب.
“We are from Morocco.”
أنا أدرس في جامعة كبيرة.
“I study at a big university.”
كتاب الأدب صعب جداً.
“The literature book (=book of literature) is very difficult.”
غرفة الأولاد أكبر من غرفة البنات.
“The boys’ room is bigger than the girls’ room.”
Morocco, university, room: after preposition
Big: adjective of genitive noun
Literature, boys, girls: second nouns in idafa constructions
Post from: Arabic Blog
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